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Poisonous Plants For Dogs

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Did you know that many common garden and house plants can be toxic to your dog? In fact, the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals lists over 390 that are poisonous—primarily when ingested.1 Some may even cause death.

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If you suspect that your pet has ingested something poisonous, please do not hesitate to call your veterinarian or the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center at 888-4ANI-HELP (888-426-4435). If you have general concerns that something in your pet's environment is impacting his or her health or well-being, please consult with your veterinarian.

Some of the most common plants that are toxic to dogs are:

Please note that while we make all efforts to provide up-to-date, valid information, we cannot guarantee the accuracy of the information. Also, our plants list is not meant to be all-inclusive.

Adam-and-Eve (Arum maculatum)

Adam and Eve
Also known as: Arum, Cuckoo Plant, and Lord-and-Ladies.2
Toxic parts: Entire plant.3
Type: Herbaceous perennial; can be grown indoors and outdoors.3
Native to: Europe, Middle East.3
In the U.S.: Southern or warmer climates.3
Looks like: 3
  • Small clusters of green berries that turn red-orange.
  • Large, broad leaves, which can be arrow-shaped.
  • Low-growing.
  • Flower is a sheath-like hood over a spike with tiny clusters.
Clinical symptoms/outcomes include: 2
  • Difficulty swallowing.
  • Excessive drooling.
  • Mouth irritation and burning sensation.
  • Vomiting.

Aloe (Aloe vera)

Aloe
Also known as:N/A
Toxic parts: Leaves.3
Type: Herbaceous perennial; can be grown indoors in colder climates and outdoors.3
Native to: Tropical Africa.3
In the U.S.: Southern or warmer climates.3
Looks like:3
  • Base clusters of green, succulent, long, often spiny leaves.
  • Red, pink, white, or yellow flowers are tubular and occur in clusters on thin stems above the leaves.
Clinical symptoms/outcomes include: 4
  • Anorexia.
  • Depression.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Tremors.
  • Urine color change.
  • Vomiting.

Amaryllis (Amaryllis species)

Amaryllis
Also known as: Belladonna, Naked Lady.5
Toxic parts: Entire plant.6
Type: Tender or hardy bulb, depending on climate; can be grown indoors and outdoors.6
Native to: South Africa.6
In the U.S.: Southern or warmer climates.6
Looks like: 3
  • Large flowers (shaped like trumpets) that bloom in autumn on 18” stalks
Clinical symptoms/outcomes include: 5
  • Anorexia.
  • Depression.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Drooling.
  • Stomach pain.
  • Tremors.
  • Vomiting.

American Bittersweet (Celastrus scandens)

American Bittersweet
Also known as: Bittersweet, Waxwork, Shrubby or Climbing Bittersweet.7
Toxic parts: Fruit, possibly all parts.8
Type: Climbing vine3 or shrub form.7
Native to: North America.8
In the U.S.: Southern or warmer climates.6
Looks like: 7
  • Small oval shaped leaf.
  • Clusters of yellow berries.
Clinical symptoms/outcomes include: 7
  • Convulsions.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Vomiting.
  • Weakness.

American Holly (Ilex opaca)

American Holly
Also known as: English or European Holly, Inkberry, Winterberry.9
Toxic parts: Berries.10
Type: Tree or tall shrub.3
Native to: Throughout North America.3
In the U.S.: Southern or warmer climates.3
Looks like: 3
  • Dark green leaves.
  • Red, orange, or black fruit.
Clinical symptoms/outcomes include: 9
  • Depression.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Vomiting.

American Mandrake (Podophyllum peltatum)

american-mandrake_toxic_plant
Also known as: Mayapple, Indian Apple Root, Umbrella Leaf, Wild Lemon, Hog Apple, Duck's Foot, Raccoonberry.11
Toxic parts: Entire plant except fruit.8
Type: Wild herb.8
Native to: North America.8
In the U.S.: Moist woodlands throughout.8
Looks like: 8
  • Grows to 1.5 feet high.
  • Each plant has two large five or nine-lobed leaves (some up to a foot wide).
  • The leaves shelter a single white, drooping, 2-inch wide flower.
  • Yellow-green, egg-shaped, single fruits.
Clinical symptoms/outcomes include: 11
  • Coma.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Lethargy.
  • Panting.
  • Skin redness or ulcers.
  • Vomiting.

Apple (Malus sylvestrus)

Apple
Also known as: Group contains crabapple.12
Toxic parts: Stems, leaves, seeds.12
Type: Deciduous tree or shrub.13
Native to: Five species of crab apples are native to North America; the many species commonly eaten by humans are originally from southeastern Europe and Central Asia.13
In the U.S.: Temperate climates.8
Looks like: 8, 13
  • Clusters of small, fragrant white or pink flowers.
  • Crab apples are smaller than eating apples.
  • Fleshy fruit with multiple small seeds.
Clinical symptoms/outcomes include: 12
  • Dilated pupils.
  • Mucous membranes turn brick red.
  • Respiratory distress and panting.
  • Shock.

Apricot (Prunus armeniaca)

Apricot
Also known as: This group contains peach, plum, and cherry trees.3, 14
Toxic parts: Stems, leaves, seeds.14
Type: Deciduous tree or shrub.3
Native to: North America has many native species.3
In the U.S.: Cultivated in temperate climates.8
Looks like: 3, 8
  • Smooth, reddish bark.
  • Small 2-inch leaves with pointy tip.
  • Pink or white 5-petaled flowers.
  • Orange to red fruits with single pit inside.
Clinical symptoms/outcomes include: 14
  • Dilated pupils.
  • Mucous membranes turn brick red.
  • Respiratory distress and panting.
  • Shock.

Arrow-Head Vine (Syngonium podophyllum)

Arrowhead Fern
Also known as: Nephthytis and African Evergreen.15
Toxic parts: All parts.16
Type: Perennial evergreen.16
Native to: Mexico, South America.16
In the U.S.: Typically a houseplant.16
Looks like: 16
  • Climbing herbal vine.
  • Leaves are arrow-shaped and mottled in color.
  • Hooded singular flowers.
Clinical symptoms/outcomes include: 15
  • Acute mouth irritation.
  • Difficulty in swallowing.
  • Drooling.
  • Vomiting.

Autumn Crocus (Colchicum autumnale)

Autumn Crocus
Also known as: Meadow or Wild Saffron, Naked Lady, Son-before-the-Father.17
Toxic parts: Entire plant.8
Type: Hardy perennial from bulb.6
Native to: Europe.17
In the U.S.: Cultivated all over, but also grows outdoors in temperate regions.17
Looks like: 6, 17
  • White or light violet flowers that only appear in late summer or autumn.
  • Long leaves in spring that die back before plant flowers.
Clinical symptoms/outcomes include: 18
  • Bloody vomit.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Mouth irritation.
  • Organ damage.
  • Shock.
  • Suppression of bone marrow.

Avocado (Persea americana)

Avocado
Also known as: Alligator Pear.19
Toxic parts: Bark, leaves, seeds, unripe fruit.3
Type: Shrub or tree.20
Native to: Central America and Mexico.3
In the U.S.: Typically grown in California and Florida.19
Looks like: 20
  • Pointed oval dark green leaves.
  • Trees can grow to more than 65 feet tall.
  • Fruit varies in size from 4 to over 10 inches long with a rough skin darker than the interior flesh, and a large central seed.
Clinical symptoms/outcomes include: 19
  • Diarrhea.
  • Vomitting.

Azalea and Rhododendron (Rhododendron species)

Azalea
Also known as: Rosebay21
Toxic parts: Entire plant.10
Type: Evergreen and deciduous shrubs or small trees3
Native to: orth America, Southeast Asia, Australia.3
In the U.S.: emperate climates.3
Looks like: 3
  • Rhododendrons usually have thick leathery evergreen leaves.
  • Azaleas usually have thin deciduous leaves.
  • Dense clusters of large bell-shaped flowers in a wide variety of colors.
Clinical symptoms/outcomes include: 21
  • Coma.
  • Death.
  • Depression.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Drooling.
  • Leg paralysis.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Loss of coordination.
  • Stupor.
  • Vomiting.
  • Weak heart rate and cardiovascular collapse.
  • Weakness

Begonia (Begonia species)

Begonia
Also known as: Wax Begonia.17
Toxic parts: Mostly the tuberous root.17
Type: Tender or hardy perennial, or grown as an annual, depending on climate.6
Native to: Mexico, South and Central America, Asia, South Africa.17
In the U.S.: Cultivated in temperate climates.17
Looks like: 6, 17
  • Grows between six and 30 inches tall.
  • Broad, shiny leaves can be red or green, and sometimes striped or multi-color.
  • Thick stems.
  • Small 4-petaled red, white, orange, or pink flowers, two of the petals are much smaller.
Clinical symptoms/outcomes include: 22
  • Difficulty swallowing.
  • Excessive drooling.
  • Mouth irritation and burning.
  • Vomiting.

Boston Ivy (Parthenocissus tricuspidata)

Boston Ivy
Also known as: N/A
Toxic parts: All parts.10
Type: Climbing vine.23
Native to: Central China and Japan.23
In the U.S.: Cultivated in colder temperate climates.23
Looks like: 23
  • 3-lobed green leaves that turn red in the autumn.
  • Small blue fruit.
Clinical symptoms/outcomes include: 24
  • Difficulty swallowing.
  • Mouth swelling.
  • Gastrointestinal problems.
  • Respiratory problems.

Buttercup (Ranunculus)

Buttercup
Also known as: Butter Cress, Figwort, Crowfoot, Blisterwort.3, 25
Toxic parts: Entire plant.3
Type: Annual and perennial wild herb.3
Native to: North America.3
In the U.S.: All regions.3
Looks like: 3
  • Usually flowers in spring, with small yellow or cream flowers with five or more petals.
  • Grows to low or moderate height.
  • Multiple leaves can be variable in shape—sometimes divided, lobed, or veined—and alternate on the stem.
Clinical symptoms/outcomes include: 25
  • Anorexia.
  • Depression.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Excessive drooling.
  • Unsteady gait.
  • Vomiting.

Caladium (Caladium hortulanum)

Caladium_Toxic_Plant
Also known as: Angel-Wings, Candidum, Exposition, Elephant's Ears, Malanga, Mother-in-law Plant, Pink Cloud, Seagull, Stoplight, Texas Wonder.26
Toxic parts: All parts.27
Type: Perennial herb grown from tuber.27
Native to: South America.27
In the U.S.: Houseplant or grown outdoors as tender annual in colder temperate regions; outside as tender perennial in southern states.23, 27
Looks like: 23, 27
  • Large, arrow-shaped multiple-colored leaves with a variable color mix of green, white, red, and pink.
  • Hooded flowers on singular stalks.
  • Thick stems.
  • Small 4-petaled red, white, orange, or pink flowers, two of the petals are much smaller.
Clinical symptoms/outcomes include: 26
  • Difficulty swallowing.
  • Excessive drooling.
  • Mouth irritation and burning.
  • Excessive drooling.
  • Vomiting.

Chinaberry (Melia azedarach L.)

Chinaberry
Also known as: Persian Lilac, White Cedar, Texas Umbrella Tree, Paradise Tree, Bead Tree.28
Toxic parts: Berries, bark, leaves, and flowers.28
Type: Deciduous tree.17
Native to: Temperate and tropical Asia, Australia, and the Solomon Islands.29
In the U.S.: Found as an invasive plant throughout the southern half of the United States.29
Looks like: 29
  • Similar to American elderberry tree.
  • Fast-growing tree; can grow to 50 feet tall.
  • Purple-tinged, brown-spotted twigs, large blue-green leaves that turn yellow in autumn.
  • Round yellow berries.
  • Clusters of small flowers in the spring, with five pink petals around a central deep purple and red tube.
Clinical symptoms/outcomes include: 28
  • Depression.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Drooling.
  • Seizures.
  • Vomiting.
  • Weakness.

Christmas Tree (Pinus sylvestris)

Christmas Tree
Also known as: Scotch Pine.30
Toxic parts: Sap.30
Type: Evergreen tree.23
Native to: Europe.23
In the U.S.: Found in the colder zones.23
Looks like: 23
  • Two to three-inch long blue-green needles, two to a sheath.
  • Reddish bark.
  • Two inch pine cones.
  • Can reach 75 feet in height if left to grow.
Clinical symptoms/outcomes include: 31
  • Abdominal pain.
  • Anorexia.
  • Depression.
  • Vomiting.

Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum species)

Chrysanthemum
Also known as: Daisy, Mum.32
Toxic parts: Entire plant.10
Type: Perennial.6
Native to: China.33
In the U.S.: Temperate to warm zones.6
Looks like: 6, 33
  • One to five feet tall.
  • Blooms summer through fall.
  • Multiple colors and petal counts, depending on type.
Clinical symptoms/outcomes include: 32
  • Diarrhea.
  • Excessive drooling.
  • Skin irritation.
  • Unsteady gait.
  • Vomiting.

Clematis (Clematis species)

Clematis
Also known as: Virgin’s Bower, Leatherflower.34
Toxic parts: Entire plant.10
Type: Woody perennial vine.3
Native to: Over 50 native species to North America.3
In the U.S.: Throughout the country.3
Looks like: 3
  • Small to large flowers, sometimes clustered; multiple colors, including white, pink, red, or purple.
  • Densely clustered red or black berries.
  • Vine can be trailing or climbing.
Clinical symptoms/outcomes include: 34
  • Diarrhea.
  • Excessive salivation.
  • Vomiting.

Creeping Fig (Ficus benjamina)

Creeping Fig
Also known as: Indian Rubber Plant, Weeping Fig.53
Toxic parts: Sap from all parts.54
Type: Evergreen shrub or tree.54
Native to: Asia.54
In the U.S.: Typically a houseplant.54
Looks like: 54
  • Drooping branches.
  • Alternating, long, glossy leaves.
  • Flowers and fruits are in a sac that turns color from green to reddish orange and then a deep purple-tinged black.
Clinical symptoms/outcomes include: 53
  • Dermatitis.
  • Drooling.
  • Oral irritation.
  • Vomiting.

Daffodil (Narcissus)

Daffodil
Also known as: Narcissus, Jonquil, Paper White.35
Toxic parts: Bulbs, leaves, and flowers, but the bulbs are especially toxic.35, 26
Type: Bulbous perennial.36
Native to: Europe.36
In the U.S.: Throughout the country.36
Looks like: 36
  • Two-part flowers—a central cup with a flat base ring of six structures that look like petals.
  • Flat or sheath-like leaves, but not on flower stalk.
  • Blooms in spring for up to three months in warmer regions.
Clinical symptoms/outcomes include: 35
  • Convulsions.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Excessive salivation.
  • Low blood pressure and irregular heart rhythms.
  • Tremors.
  • Vomiting.

Dieffenbachia (Dieffenbachia)

Dieffenbachia
Also known as: Giant or Spotted Dumb Cane, Exotica or Exotica Perfection.37
Toxic parts: All parts.38
Type: Perennial herb.38
Native to: Tropical countries.38
In the U.S.: Typically a houseplant.38
Looks like: 38
  • Hooded, spiked flower.
  • Large mottled white, yellow, and green leaves.
  • Tall.
Clinical symptoms/outcomes include: 37
  • Acute mouth irritation.
  • Difficulty in swallowing.
  • Drooling.
  • Vomiting.

Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea)

Foxglove
Also known as: Purple Foxglove.3
Toxic parts: Entire plant.3
Type: Biennial or perennial herb.3
Native to: Southern Europe, Central Asia.3
In the U.S.: Throughout the country.3
Looks like: 3
  • Can grow up to five or more feet high.
  • Large, oval, pointy-tipped leaves with hairy undersides at the base of the plant.
  • Tall stalks with clusters of tubular, drooping, pink/purple or white/yellow flowers.
  • The lower lip of the flower is usually spotted purple or brown.
Clinical symptoms/outcomes include: 39
  • Cardiac arrhythmia.
  • Cardiac failure.
  • Death.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Vomiting.
  • Weakness.

Hydrangea (Hydrangea arborescens)

Hydrangea
Also known as: Hills of Snow, Hortensia, Seven Bark.40
Toxic parts: Leaves.41
Type: Flowering shrub.41
Native to: North America.23
In the U.S.: From New York south and west to Oklahoma.41
Looks like: 41
  • Typically between four and six feet tall.
  • Large clustered white flowers bloom July through August.
Clinical symptoms/outcomes include: 39
  • Depression.
  • Diarrhea.

Marijuana (Cannabis sativa)

Marijuana
Also known as: Indian Hemp, Hashish.42
Toxic parts: All parts; especially stems of flowers.43
Type: Annual.43
Native to: Asia.43
In the U.S.: Illegal to grow, but has been cultivated throughout the country both indoors and out. 43
Looks like: 43
  • Grows six to twelve feet tall.
  • At the base of the plant, leaves grow opposite each other; at the top they alternate and are divided into palms of three to seven small leaves.
  • Small green clustered flowers.
Clinical symptoms/outcomes include: 42
  • Coma.
  • Death.
  • Depression.
  • Dilated pupils.
  • Drowsiness or excitability.
  • Excessive drooling.
  • Low blood pressure.
  • Low body temperature.
  • Seizure.
  • Vomiting.

Mistletoe (Phoradendron leucarpum, P. serotinum, P. flavescens)

Mistletoe
Also known as: American Mistletoe.44
Toxic parts: Berries.45
Type: Evergreen shrub that is partially parasitic on the limbs of deciduous trees.45
Native to: U.S.A.45
In the U.S.: Throughout the country.45
Looks like: 45
  • Leathery oblong leaves grow opposite each other on green-colored branches.
  • White berries.
Clinical symptoms/outcomes include: 44
  • Diarrhea.
  • Dilated pupils.
  • Erratic behavior.
  • Gastrointestinal problems.
  • Heart failure.
  • Low blood pressure.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Slow heartbeat.
  • Vomiting.

Morning Glory (Ipomoea)

Morning Glory
Also known as: Beach Moonflower, Grannyvine.3
Toxic parts: Seeds; possibly other parts.3
Type: Annual vine.36
Native to: Mostly tropical climates.36
In the U.S.: Throughout the country.36
Looks like: 36
  • Climbing vine with large funnel-shaped flowers in blue, purple, red, white, and contrasting colors.
Clinical symptoms/outcomes include: 46
  • Agitation.
  • Anorexia.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Disorientation and unsteadiness.
  • Gastrointestinal problems.
  • Hallucinations.
  • Tremors.

Philodendron Pertusum (Philodendron spp)

Philodendron
Also known as: Philodendron.47
Toxic parts: All parts.47
Type: Evergreen vine.47
Native to: Tropical America.47
In the U.S.: Typically a houseplant.47
Looks like: 47
  • Climbing vine.
  • Hooded, spiked cluster of flowers that rarely form when grown inside (as opposed to the tropics).
  • Large, alternating, glossy, dark green leaves.
Clinical symptoms/outcomes include: 48
  • Acute mouth irritation.
  • Difficulty in swallowing.
  • Drooling.
  • Vomiting.

Sweet Pea (Lathyrus latifolius)

Sweet Pea
Also known as: Peavine, Vetchling, Wild Pea.49
Toxic parts: Seedlings and seeds.17
Type: Perennial.6
Native to: Southern Europe up to southern Russia.49
In the U.S.: Throughout the country.49
Looks like: 6
  • Erect or climbing vine.
  • White, purple, pink, or bi-colored flowers.
  • Some have fragrant blooms from early spring through summer.
Clinical symptoms/outcomes include: 50
  • Death.
  • Lethargy.
  • Pacing.
  • Pressing head against wall or other object.
  • Seizures.
  • Tremors.
  • Weakness.

Tomato Plant (Lycopersicon)

Tomato Plant
Also known as: Garden tomato17
Toxic parts: Leaves.17
Type: Herbaceous perennial.17
Native to: Mexico and Peru.17
In the U.S.: Cultivated throughout temperate zones.17
Looks like: 17
  • Downy toothed or lobed leaves.
  • Most varieties produce fruit that turns red when mature.
  • The common garden tomato is actually a berry, with many small seeds.
Clinical symptoms/outcomes include: 51
  • Confusion.
  • Depression.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Dilated pupils.
  • Drowsiness.
  • Excessive drooling.
  • Gastrointestinal problems.
  • Slow heart rate.

Tulip (Tulipa)

Tulip
Also known as: N/A
Toxic parts: Entire plant, but especially the bulb.3, 52
Type: Perennial bulbous plant.36
Native to: Turkey.17
In the U.S.: Cultivated throughout the country.
Looks like: 36
  • Blooms in spring.
  • Variety of colors.
  • Cup-shaped, single flower per stem.
  • Dormant in summer.
  • Outer layers of bulbs are dry and papery.
Clinical symptoms/outcomes include: 52
  • Depression.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Excessive drooling.
  • Vomiting.

Wisteria (Wisteria species)

Wisteria
Also known as: Chinese Wisteria and Kidney Bean Tree.17
Toxic parts: Tendrils, seeds.17
Type: Climbing perennial vine, considered invasive in southern U.S. states.6, 17
Native to: China, Japan, Southeastern United States.17
In the U.S.: Temperate regions.17
Looks like: 6, 17
  • Fragrant lavender flowers that produce pods with brown seeds.
  • Climbing woody
  • The common garden tomato is actually a berry, with many small seeds. vine.
Clinical symptoms/outcomes include: 55
  • Depression.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Vomiting (sometimes bloody).

Yarrow (Achillea millefolium)

Yarrow
Also known as: Milfoil, Bloodwort, Carpenter’s Weed, Staunchweed, Solder’s Woundwort.17, 56
Toxic parts: Everything that grows above the ground (aerial).17
Type: Herbaceous perennial; invasive.17
Native to: Europe and western Asia.17
In the U.S.: Throughout temperate and some southern regions.17
Looks like: 17
  • Fragrant, red or white flat, wide flowering heads.
  • Reaches up to 20 inches in height.
  • Feathery green leaves, mostly clustered at base of flower stalk.
  • Blooms summer to early autumn.
Clinical symptoms/outcomes include: 56
  • Anorexia.
  • Depression.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Excessive drooling.
  • Vomiting.

Yew (Taxus)

Yew
Also known as: Japanese, English, and Canadian Yew.17
Toxic parts: All parts except edible berry.17
Type: Evergreen shrubs.17
Native to: North America.41
In the U.S.: Northern temperate regions.
Looks like: 41
  • Typical shrub grows one to three feet.
  • Twig bark is green on younger branches and reddish-brown on older twigs.
  • Needles tinted red in winter.
Clinical symptoms/outcomes include: 57
  • Acute cardiac failure.
  • Difficulty breathing.
  • Seizures.
  • Sudden death.
  • Tremors.

Works Cited:

1
The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. ASPCA: Pet Care: Animal Poison Control Center: Plants: Toxic and Non-Toxic Plants. The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. [Online] 2010. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/?plant_toxicity=toxic-to-cats.
2
Plants: Adam-and-Eve. ASPCA Pet Care: Animal Poison Control Center. [Online] 2010. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/adam-and-eve.html.
3
Turner, Nancy J. and Aderkas, Patrick Von. The North American Guide to Common Poisonous Plants and Mushrooms. s.l. : Timber Press, 2009. ISBN 0881929298, 9780881929294.
4
The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Plants: Aloe. ASPCA Pet Care: Animal Poison Control Center. [Online] 2010. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/aloe.html.
5
Plants: Amaryllis. ASPCA Pet Care: Animal Poison Control Center. [Online] 2010. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/amaryllis.html.
6
Powell, Eileen. The gardener's A-Z guide to growing flowers from seed to bloom. s.l. : Storey Publishing, 2004. ISBN 1580175171, 9781580175173.
7
The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Plants: American Bittersweet. ASPCA Pet Care: Animal Poison Control Center. [Online] 2010. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/american-bittersweet.html.
8
Nelson, Lewis, Shih, Richard D. and Balick, Michael J. Handbook of poisonous and injurious plants. s.l. : Springer, 2007. ISBN 0387312684, 9780387312682.
9
The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Plants: American Holly. ASPCA Pet Care: Animal Poison Control Center. [Online] 2010. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/american-holly.html.
10
Council on the Environment of New York City. Poisonous and Injurious Garden Plants. Council on the Environment of New York City: The City Lot. [Online] http://www.cenyc.org/files/citylot/Poisonous_And_Injurious_Garden_Plants.pdf.
11
The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Plants: American Mandrake. ASPCA Pet Care: Animal Poison Control Center. [Online] 2010. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/american-mandrake.html.
12
Plants: Apple. ASPCA Pet Care: Animal Poison Control Center. [Online] 2010. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/apple.html.
13
Brockman, Christian Frank and Merrilees, Rebecca A. Trees of North America: a field guide to the major native and introduced species north of Mexico. s.l. : Macmillan, 2001. ISBN 1582380929, 9781582380926.
14
The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Plants: Apricot. ASPCA Pet Care: Animal Poison Control Center. [Online] 2010. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/apricot.html.
15
Plants: Arrow-Head Vine. ASPCA Pet Care: Animal Poison Control Center. [Online] 2010. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/arrow-head-vine.html.
16
Russell, Alice B. Poisonous Plants: Syngonium podophyllum. North Carolina State University Department of Horticultural Science: Poisonous Plants of North Carolina. [Online] 1997. http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/poison/Syngopo.htm.
17
Barceloux, Donald G. Medical Toxicology of Natural Substances: Foods, Fungi, Medicinal Herbs, Plants, and Venomous Animals. s.l. : John Wiley and Sons, 2008. ISBN 047172761X, 9780471727613.
18
The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Plants: Autumn Crocus. ASPCA Pet Care: Animal Poison Control Center. [Online] 2010. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/autumn-crocus.html.
19
Plants: Avocado. ASPCA Pet Care: Animal Poison Control Center. [Online] 2010. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/avocado.html.
20
Hogan, Sean. Trees for All Seasons: Broadleaved Evergreens for Temperate Climates. s.l. : Timber Press, 2008. ISBN 0881926744, 9780881926743.
21
The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Plants: Azalea. ASPCA Pet Care: Animal Poison Control Center. [Online] 2010. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/azalea.html.
22
Plants: Begonia. ASPCA Pet Care: Animal Poison Control Center. [Online] 2010. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/begonia.html.
23
Wyman, Donald. Wyman's Gardening encyclopedia. s.l. : Simon and Schuster, 1986. ISBN 0026320703, 9780026320702.
24
Eldredge, Debra M., et al. Dog Owner's Home Veterinary Handbook. s.l. : John Wiley and Sons, 2007. ISBN 0470067853, 9780470067857.
25
The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Plants: Buttercup. ASPCA Pet Care: Animal Poison Control Center. [Online] 2010. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/buttercup.html.
26
Plants: Caladium. ASPCA Pet Care: Animal Poison Control Center. [Online] 2010. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/caladium.html.
27
Russell, Alice B. Poisonous Plants: Caladium. North Carolina State University Department of Horticultural Science: Poisonous Plants of North Carolina. [Online] 1997. http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/poison/Caladsp.htm.
28
The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Plants: Chinaberry. ASPCA Pet Care: Animal Poison Control Center. [Online] 2010. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/chinaberry-tree.html.
29
Reemts, Charlotte. Chinaberry. Plant Conservation Alliance Alien Plant Working Group. [Online] July 7, 2009. http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/fact/meaz1.htm.
30
Osborne, Carol. Dr. Carol's Naturally Healthy Cats. s.l. : American Pet Institute, 2006. ISBN 0977895017, 9780977895014.
31
Peterson, Michael Edward and Talcott, Patricia A. Small animal toxicology. s.l. : Elsevier Health Sciences, 2006. ISBN 0721606393, 9780721606392.
32
The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Plants: Chrysanthemum. ASPCA Pet Care: Animal Poison Control Center. [Online] 2010. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/chrysanthemum.html.
33
Naeve, Linda, Jauron, Richard and Nelson, Diane. Growing Chrysanthemums in the Garden. Iowa State University - University Extension Reiman Gardens. [Online] April 2005. http://www.extension.iastate.edu/Publications/RG305.pdf.
34
The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Plants: Clematis. ASPCA Pet Care: Animal Poison Control Center. [Online] 2010. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/clematis.html.
35
Plants: Daffodil. ASPCA Pet Care: Animal Poison Control Center. [Online] 2010. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/daffodil.html.
36
Buchanan, Rita and Holmes, Roger. Taylor's Master Guide to Gardening. s.l. : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2001. ISBN 061815907X, 9780618159079.
37
The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Plants: Dieffenbachia. ASPCA Pet Care: Animal Poison Control Center. [Online] 2010. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/dieffenbachia.html.
38
Russell, Alice B. Poisonous Plants: Dieffenbachia. North Carolina State University Department of Horticultural Science: Poisonous Plants of North Carolina. [Online] 1997. http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/poison/Dieffsp.htm.
39
The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Plants: Foxglove. ASPCA Pet Care: Animal Poison Control Center. [Online] 2010. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/foxglove.html.
40
Plants: Hydrangea. ASPCA Pet Care: Animal Poison Control Center. [Online] 2010. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/hydrangea.html.
41
Foster, Steven, Caras, Roger and Peterson, Roger Tory. A field guide to venomous animals and poisonous plants, North America, north of Mexico. s.l. : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1998. ISBN 039593608X, 9780395936085.
42
Wagstaff, D. Jesse. International poisonous plants checklist: an evidence-based reference. s.l. : CRC Press, 2008. ISBN 1420062522, 9781420062526.
43
Fitzgerald, Kevin T. and Vera, Rebecca. Poisonings in the Captive Reptile. [book auth.] Michael Edward Peterson and Patricia A. Talcott. Small animal toxicology. s.l. : Elsevier Health Sciences, 2006. ISBN 0721606393, 9780721606392.
44
The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Plants: Lily. ASPCA Pet Care: Animal Poison Control Center. [Online] 2010. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/lily.html.
45
Plants: Marijuana. ASPCA Pet Care: Animal Poison Control Center. [Online] 2010. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/marijuana.html.
46
Russell, Alice B. Poisonous Plants: Cannabis sativa. North Carolina State University Department of Horticultural Science: Poisonous Plants of North Carolina. [Online] 1997. http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/poison/Cannasa.htm.
47
The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Plants: Mistletoe. ASPCA Pet Care: Animal Poison Control Center. [Online] 2010. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/mistletoe-american.html.
48
Russell, Alice B. Poisonous Plants: Phoradendron leucarpum (P. serotinum). North Carolina State University Department of Horticultural Science: Poisonous Plants of North Carolina. [Online] 1997. http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/poison/Phorale.htm.
49
The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Plants: Morning Glory. ASPCA Pet Care: Animal Poison Control Center. [Online] 2010. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/morning-glory.html.
50
Russell, Alice B. Poisonous Plants: Philodendron spp. North Carolina State University Department of Horticultural Science: Poisonous Plants of North Carolina. [Online] 1997. http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/poison/Philosp.htm.
51
The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Plants: Philodendron Pertusum. ASPCA Pet Care: Animal Poison Control Center. [Online] 2010. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/philodendron-pertusum.html.
52
Ani?ko, Tomasz. When Perennials Bloom: An Almanac for Planning and Planting. s.l. : Timber Press, 2008. ISBN 0881928879, 9780881928877.
53
The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Plants: Sweet Pea. ASPCA Pet Care: Animal Poison Control Center. [Online] 2010. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/sweet-pea.html.
54
Plants: Tomato Plant. ASPCA Pet Care: Animal Poison Control Center. [Online] 2010. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/tomato-plant.html".
55
Plants: Tulip. ASPCA Pet Care: Animal Poison Control Center. [Online] 2010. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/tulip.html.
56
Plants: Fig. ASPCA Pet Care: Animal Poison Control Center. [Online] 2010. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/fig.html.
57
Russell, Alice B. Poisonous Plants: Ficus benjamina. North Carolina State University Department of Horticultural Science: Poisonous Plants of North Carolina. [Online] 1997. http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/poison/Ficusbe.htm.
58
The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Plants: Wisteria. ASPCA Pet Care: Animal Poison Control Center. [Online] 2010. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/wisteria.html.
59
Plants: Yarrow. ASPCA Pet Care: Animal Poison Control Center. [Online] 2010. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/yarrow.html.
60
Plants: Yew. ASPCA Pet Care: Animal Poison Control Center. [Online] 2010. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/poison-control/plants/yew.html.
 

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